Causes and Bio-Psycho-Social Changes Associated with Aging: A Review of Qualitative Literature
The term aging denotes the concluding phase of life, with gradual decline normally starting from the age of 60 years. The process of aging has been taken in different perspectives by the different people. The progressive decline spread over the course of entire life in terms of functioning and quality of life are the two principal distinctions of aging. Aging brings a number of visible and non-visible changes in the functions and structure of different organs of the body. Changes in the five basic senses e.g. touch, taste, smell, vision and hearing, and loss of hair, teeth, strength, weak memory, overall weakness and incapacity of the cardiorespiratory, digestive and other systems of the body are the part and parcel of aging. In some parts of the world, the segment of population representing the age group of 85 is the fastest growing segment of population. The age group above 60 and above represented around 12% of the global population in 2017. Experts also assume that there will be 1.2 billion and 2 billion people representing the age group above 60 in 2025 and 2050 respectively and most of them around 80% of them will belong to the developing countries. Different theories of aging are presented from time to time presenting diverse point of view of the social scientists; main theories include Disengagement Theory of aging, Continuity Theory of aging, Wear-and-tear Theory of aging, The Neuroendocrine Theory of aging, Activity Theory of aging, The Membrane Theory of Aging, Programmed Theory of aging, Human Needs Theory of aging, Life-Course Theory of aging, Disengagement Theory of aging. This review paper has evaluated the existing literature encircling the issue of aging, its nature, the process of aging, its effects, future prospectus and measures to slow down its progress.
Keywords: Aging, Population, Life, Theory, Elderly, Deterioration, Decline