OEconomia https://oeconomiajournal.com/index.php/Journal en-US OEconomia Pattern of Marriages and Family Structure in Pashtun Tribes of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP) Under Islamic Context https://oeconomiajournal.com/index.php/Journal/article/view/86 <p>Allah (SWT) has made man a collectivist by nature. Man needs society to fulfill his needs. This is why humans live together with other humans and form social contracts. One of which is marriage. Pashtun tribes seem to adhere to customs while maintaining a strong sense of Islamic values that influence their marriage and family structure. The purpose of this research is to raise awareness of how Islamic teachings affect family relations, gender roles, general and social harmony within Pashtun tribes by examining the current status of these systems. This study will highlight the various marriage arrangements that are common in Pashtun culture, including exchange marriages, love marriages, and forced marriages, and will also look at how Islamic norms influence decisions about marriage. Roles and responsibilities of spouses, parents and children in Pashtun tribes will also be studied in the light of Islamic teachings, emphasizing the idea of mutual respect and cooperation. In this research review, socio-economic changes, external cultural influences on Pashtun family system and globalization will also be discussed. This study attempts to present a detailed picture of how Pashtun families adapt to modernity by considering the interaction between Islamic principles and changing social conditions while maintaining their religious and cultural identity. The Pashtun tribes of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP), Pakistan, will be the focus of this study, which aims to comprehend these dynamics from an Islamic perspective. It will also look into the existing marriage patterns and family structures among these Pashtun tribes. For this research work, information was gathered from different sources, including books, papers, magazines, sites, and so on. This study will contribute to the already existing knowledge regarding Islamic views on relationships between family units other than marriage and especially among the Pashtun tribes of KP. The study will also seek to increase understanding among policymakers, educators, and researchers about the importance of cultural sensitivity in addressing family-related issues in this area.</p> Dr. Naseem Akhter Dr. Sajid ur Rahman Ms. Saba Rauf Ms. Irsa Aziz Dr Shumaila Rafiq Copyright (c) 2023 OEconomia 2023-09-16 2023-09-16 6 2 Continuing Legal Education in Pakistan: Its Importance and Need https://oeconomiajournal.com/index.php/Journal/article/view/84 <p>Continuing legal education (CLE) or continuing professional development (CPD) mean providing practical and requisite training to the newly inducted lawyers in the legal profession. In the developed world like US, UK, and European Union, CLE/CPD is mandatory and lawyers whether juniors or seniors are under statutory obligation to complete certain hours in a year as CLE/CPD and in case of failure, their licenses are suspended till they complete training. The sole purpose of this training is to keep lawyers abreast of the changes in the laws and other interdisciplinary subjects. The quality legal education is provided in the US and UK; even then the lawyers are required to undergo CLE/CPD.The CLE/CPD is necessary because it not only equips the lawyer with the latest knowledge and skills but also is helpful in advancing their professional career. India has established CLE/CPD centers to provide training to the lawyers. Unfortunately, in Pakistan, institutionally CLE/CPD has not yet been kick-started. The CPD is provided in every department in Pakistan ranging district judiciary, Police, Foreign and Pakistan Services Pakistan et al. Alas! To the lawyer’s community, such a facility does not exist except for a few individuals. In Pakistan, lawyers only undergo nominal apprenticeship prescribed Bar Councils Rules, that too is not seriously done.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Continue Educaiton, Professional, Development, Legal Education, training, life-long process, Apprenticeship, proper course material, Bar Councils etc.</p> Muhammad Imran Adnan Rehman Maryam Qasim* Saifullah Muhib Kiran Nisar Copyright (c) 2023 OEconomia 2023-09-13 2023-09-13 6 2 600 621 Unveiling the Significance of Parental Involvement in Supporting Children with Hearing Impairment in Education: A Parental Perspective https://oeconomiajournal.com/index.php/Journal/article/view/85 <p><em>This study explores parental involvement's pivotal role in shaping the educational experiences of hearing-impaired children, recognizing diverse perspectives and challenges among parents. It underscores active parental engagement's universal significance, transcending cultural boundaries. Employing a quantitative methodology with a descriptive focus, a sample of 150 parents of hearing-impaired children in Pakistan's Dera Ghazi Khan Division was randomly selected. Custom questionnaires were distributed physically and online, and data were analyzed using SPSS. The findings reveal a diverse participant profile, emphasizing the need for tailored approaches. Parental involvement strategies varied widely, necessitating multifaceted approaches. Challenges included understanding children's specific needs, communication barriers with educators, resource access, and work-life balance. Collaboration among stakeholders was seen as crucial. Gender, age, and qualifications influenced perspectives. In conclusion, this study provides insights into parental involvement complexities, advocating for inclusive educational environments. Practical implications for hearing-impaired children's education and future research and policy development are highlighted.</em></p> Dr. Muhammad Javed Aftab Dr. Hina Hadayat Ali Dr. Rukhsana Bashir Farhat Munir Robina Naqvi Navid Ur Rehman Copyright (c) 2023 OEconomia 2023-09-14 2023-09-14 6 2 378 392 A Systematic Literature Review on Ownership Structure and Firm Growth https://oeconomiajournal.com/index.php/Journal/article/view/75 <p><strong>Research background: </strong>Ownership structure is a key element of corporate governance that helps firms to better perform organizational activities and improve firm growth. Studies have been conducted to expand our understanding on the linkage of corporate ownership structure and firm growth, however systematization of prior findings is needed to provide conclusive picture regarding the direction of the influence of ownership structure variables on firm growth.</p> <p><strong>Purpose of the Article: </strong>This study aims to comprehensively review the relevant studies on the relationship between ownership structure and firm growth by using systematic literature review approach. The study also aims to identify the gaps in the existing literature and provide avenues for future research.</p> <p><strong>Method:</strong> The study used systematic literature review method to review the published research work related to the study objectives.&nbsp; The study conducted SLR and selected 16 research articles published in national and international journals from 2009 to 2023.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Findings &amp; value added: </strong>The systematic literature review identified that studies conducted on the relationship between ownership structure and firm growth primarily classified ownership structure into different equity ownership. The prior literature mainly focusses on particular ownership categories i.e., state vs foreign ownership, family vs non-family ownership and ownership concentration while studying ownership structure in-relation with firm growth.&nbsp; The study found that mostly firm growth was estimated by three measures i.e., asset growth, sales growth, and employment. The study made the available evidence more accessible to the policy and decision makers. Understanding the direction of the effect of different ownership structure variables on firm growth is important for academicians, policy makers, and shareholders as the level of firm growth indicates the long-term survival of the firms and success of the business entity. The study provides integrated findings and provides knowledge regarding the direction of the influence of different ownership variables on the firm growth.</p> <p><strong><em>Keywords:</em></strong><em> Ownership Structure, Firms Growth, Systematic Literature Review (SLR)</em></p> Muhammad Sadil Ali Dr. Syed Muhammad Amir Shah Copyright (c) 2023 OEconomia 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 6 2 Good Food Score Reflecting Health Status of the Families: A Predicting Approach through Machine Learning https://oeconomiajournal.com/index.php/Journal/article/view/73 <p><em>The current scenario investigates the different factors that affect the Household Health Status (HHS) in Southern Punjab Pakistan. Household Good Food Score (GFS) indicate a family’s financial access to a variety of foods to meet their nutritional requirements. The primary source of information was 300 instances of households. A particularly coordinated overview for get-together responses was made according to FAO rules. The Weka classification for logistic regression was used to analyze the data. The cross validation estimated coefficients of the GFS, household head income, education level, and covid-19 status all have positive effects on HHS while the attribute household head age and size has a negative effect. The findings of that study indicate the correctly classified instances that out of 300 instances, 298 instances are correctly classified. So, 99% of that is the accuracy of this particular classifier. So, the value of the kappa statistic is 0.99 and it is considered a very good value. The study also suggested key policy recommendations to improve HHS and socioeconomic factors that affect households’ health scores.</em></p> Dr. Hina Ali Hina Shafiq Zinaz Aisha Maria Iftikhar Nazish Iftikhar Hira Ali Copyright (c) 2023 OEconomia 2023-04-13 2023-04-13 6 2 313 329 Effects of Vigorous Intensity Exercises on the Bilirubin level of Liver https://oeconomiajournal.com/index.php/Journal/article/view/81 <p>The researchers at Shaheeed Benazir Bhutto Women University in Peshawar set out to examine the "effects of vigorous intensity exercises on the bilirubin level of liver" among the students. The study was experimental in nature. Thirty students who were healthy and eager to participate in the study were selected using the Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire (PAR-Q). The pre-test bilirubin level of the selected subjects was determined using the Liver Function Test (LFT). Subjects were randomly and equally assigned to the Experimental group (vigorous intensity exercises) and the Control (which got no treatment) group. The experimental group participated in vigorous exercise three times a week for 10 weeks as part of their treatment. The subjects of the control group did not get any treatment during this time but went about their routines as usual. The bilirubin post-test data was gathered using the same assay as the bilirubin pre-test. This was done once the full course of intervention had been taken. The minimum, maximum, mean, standard deviation, paired sample t test and independent sample t test were used to conduct descriptive and inferential analyses of the data collected before and after the treatment/intervention. The 0.05 level of significance was applied uniformly throughout this study. The results showed that the bilirubin level of the subjects of experimental group enhanced significantly after 10-week treatment of vigorous intensity exercises. The subjects in the control group did not see significant improvement in their bilirubin level of the liver because they were not given any kind of treatment. It was concluded that vigorous intensity exercises performed on a regular basis would help people in the enhancement of bilirubin level i.e., will enhance the function of liver.</p> <p><strong>Key words: </strong>Vigorous Intensity Exercises, Bilirubin level, Liver</p> Fehmina Bibi Khalid Zaman Mehwish Manzoor Irfan Ullah Azmat Iqbal Humaira Nawaz Mehboob Ullah Khan Copyright (c) 2023 OEconomia 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 6 2 Migration Impacts On Rural Poverty: Case Study of Faisalabad District, Pakistan https://oeconomiajournal.com/index.php/Journal/article/view/71 <p>The global economy of today includes migration as a key component. Although this study aims to evaluate the significance of internal migration in reducing poverty in rural Faisalabad, people leave their homes for a variety of reasons. Internal migration refers to people moving within a nation, typically in quest of better job prospects. One of these South Asian nations with high internal immigration rates also includes Pakistan. Poverty is regarded as a significant influence in this regard. In the Pakistani district of Faisalabad, rural household poverty is estimated, as is the effect of internal migration on rural household poverty.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Migration, Poverty, Rural, District Faisalabad, Pakistan<strong> </strong></p> Mariam Abbas Iram liaquat Summera Iqrar Atiq Ur Rehman Dr. Asma Islam* Copyright (c) 2023 OEconomia 2023-06-22 2023-06-22 6 2 Examining the Impact of Urban and Rural Environments on the Connection Between Cardiovascular Endurance and Body Mass Index in Female University Athletes https://oeconomiajournal.com/index.php/Journal/article/view/79 <p><strong>Objective:</strong> The primary aim of this study was to investigate the impact of urban and rural localities on the cardiovascular endurance of female university athletes in relation to Body Mass Index (BMI). <strong>Methods:</strong> A diverse sample of 136 players from various sports, with a mean age of 20.37±2.10 years, was included to represent different body types and communities. The participants' cardiovascular endurance was assessed using the Harvard Step Test, while BMI was determined by measuring their height and weight. Descriptive statistics, including the Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Shapiro-Wilk tests, as well as Spearman's correlation, a trend line, and an independent samples t-test, were conducted for data analysis, with a significance level set at 5%. <strong>Results:</strong> The findings revealed that the average BMI for the entire sample was 19.93±3.31 kg/m², and the average fitness index was 66.45±8.73, indicating an average level of fitness. Additionally, it was concluded that only a small proportion (3.7%) of female university players achieved a good level of fitness. The correlation coefficients indicated a weak and insignificant negative correlation (r = -0.061, p&gt;0.05) between cardiovascular endurance and BMI. The results also demonstrated that the locality had a significant effect on both BMI (t = 2.164, p &lt; 0.05) and cardiovascular endurance (t = -2.397, p &lt; 0.05) among female university players. Moreover, it was observed that university athletes from rural areas exhibited higher fitness levels and lower BMI compared to players from urban areas. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> The study found that BMI had no significant association with cardiovascular endurance, but it was observed that locality had a significant impact on both BMI and cardiovascular endurance.</p> <p><strong>Key Words</strong>: Cardiovascular, Endurance, Fitness Index, BMI, University Athletes</p> Fozia Tabassum Cheema Dr. Mohibullah Khan Marwat Copyright (c) 2023 OEconomia 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 6 2 Unification of Muslim Ummah: An Impetus to Religious Harmony https://oeconomiajournal.com/index.php/Journal/article/view/66 <p>The unity of Muslim ummah is an important objective for fuqahā and scholars throughout Islamic history. The present research is conducted to highlight the importance of different rapprochement strategies for unification of Muslim ummah. The research is designed to elaborate the quest of jurists to achieve the unity of Muslim ummah. The research design employed in research was analytical and descriptive and content analysis was used for data collection both from primary and secondary sources. The strategies discussed in this research in order to attain unification of Muslim ummah range from scholarly debatesto role of media in bringing awareness about ethics of disagreement by systematizing the efforts of Islamic scholars. The effort of jurists in bridging these gaps and the reasons of conflict was the main focus of study in this research. Updated versions of reports, conference proceedings and the records of seminars were consulted in this regard. The research concludes that the jurisprudential principles relating to different schools of thought are aligned with the rapprochement strategies and serve as an impetus to religious harmony and Islamic unity. The role of media is also underlined for the establishment of religious harmony. It’s the need of time to achieve global stability among Muslims by resolving their differences and contradictions through rapprochement. The research recommends that awareness could be brought among Muslims to resolve their issues and consolidate Muslim ummah through mobilizing scholars for inspiring opinions.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Islamic Jurisprudence; Unity; Islamic Madhāhib; Mutual Intimacy; Ethics of Disagreement.</p> Dr. Shahzadi Pakeeza Humaira Jahangir Copyright (c) 2023 OEconomia 2023-06-15 2023-06-15 6 2 200 230 Causes and Consequences of Child Abuse in Educational Institutions in Pakistan https://oeconomiajournal.com/index.php/Journal/article/view/77 <p>The motivation behind this study is to decide the consciousness of child abuse in educational institutions from various divisions connected with the idea of Child abuse. This study expects to decide consciousness of Child maltreatment as qualitative research, led in accordance with a phenomenological plan. In the research, a focus group discussion (FGD) strategy was utilized. The research data was gathered through the focus-group interview method. The information was gathered from two different groups as focus group discussions and analyzed by Qualitative research techniques of Content analysis.&nbsp;After the data analysis, it was concluded that a rising number of children were exposed to maltreatment/abuse consistently in our schools. Significant findings likewise uncovered that actual maltreatment/abuse happened modestly while psychological mistreatment happened all the more regularly. Additionally, physiological and sexual maltreatment/ Abuse was a piece of our schools.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;<em>Key Words:</em></strong><em> Child Abuse, Psychological Abuse, Sexual Abuse,&nbsp; psychological and emotional abuse.</em></p> Masooma Kazam Dr. Hafsa Tanweer Ms. Ammara Asghar Madiha Izzat Shazia Nawaz Dr. Asma Islam* Copyright (c) 2023 OEconomia 2023-04-13 2023-04-13 6 2 The Inhibition of Religious Fanaticism in Islam https://oeconomiajournal.com/index.php/Journal/article/view/64 <p>Severity occurs in different forms, when it deviates from moderation. When a person deviates from moderation, the way of his thinking and watching over things are changed. He will appear to be a normal person; he may have the same views like others. But he will propose a solution to a problem, which will be out of bounds, people will grief from him. Then he becomes the opposite of being a good citizen. A moderate citizen’s behavior in society is such that others do not hate him. That is why he lives peacefully among them. Every society has a collective concept to which it adheres. Some people disagree with that concept. Then that conflict is resolved by trying to reconstruct the past. They want to rekindle the glorious past by undoing the mistakes of the past. But a fanatic/dogmatic person or group will stick to one of two opinions. Either they would like to implement the past system again or they will plane the future in such a way that the values of the past do not interfere in it. An extremist person considers that, my views are the right ones. If people don’t agree with me, I will forcibly persuade them. But the reality is that, the world cannot survive like that. Islam has nothing to do with a person who transgresses. Islam itself is a moderate religion and teacher’s moderation to its followers.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> intolerance, excessiveness, un-reasonable attitude, moderation.</p> Dr. Sadiq Ali Dr. Zeeshan Fariha Mahmood Muhammad Ibrahim Nisar Mahmood Dr.Qaisar Bilal Copyright (c) 2023 OEconomia 2023-05-31 2023-05-31 6 2 158 163 Quranic Case for Resurrection https://oeconomiajournal.com/index.php/Journal/article/view/74 <p>Death has increasingly caused humans to investigate its reality and what lies after it, if something at all, with personal conviction and concern. Till date it remains a matter of speculation. We do not encounter arguments other than ‘faith’ from major world religions when justifying claims about life after death (LAD) as it is an unseen phenomenon. This paper attempts to analyse the Islamic idea of resurrection (after death)&nbsp; and its justification that is distinct from faith but instead contemplative in nature. To do this a legal lens was adopted which allowed the categorisation of selected Quranic arguments under the heading of direct evidence, indirect evidence and intuitive reasoning. <em>Results</em>: Four kinds of direct evidences are discussed under the themes of sleep, droughts, predictions and Quranic challenge. The section of indirect evidences narrows its scope only to two, out of many, broad possible signs that pointed towards the reality of resurrection. These include the signs found in nature such as sun and water as well as signs one finds within the human body such as the creation and function of human fingertips. Finally the last section tries to amalgamate Quran’s appeal to human rationality that facilitates the reader in accepting the possibility of resurrection and hence a final Day of Judgement. These include the notion of accountability, pleasure, pain and human agency.</p> Maira F. Maneka Copyright (c) 2023 OEconomia 2023-04-30 2023-04-30 6 2 330 348 Aesthetic Values in the Poetry of Bashar bin Burd: An Expanded Descriptive Study https://oeconomiajournal.com/index.php/Journal/article/view/82 <p><em>The aesthetic dimensions of the revered Abbasid poet, Bashar bin Burd, are meticulously explored in this comprehensive study. Situated prominently among 8th-century poetic figures, Bashar's acclaim extends beyond historical transitions in the Arabic literary milieu, anchoring deeply in the intrinsic aesthetic profundity of his compositions. His verses, characterized by a seamless interplay of eloquence and elegance, challenge societal and literary conventions[1]. The paper further elucidates Bashar's unreserved embrace of sensuality and love, coupled with his adept use of metaphorical constructs and vivid imagery[2][3]. Furthermore, his association with the 'Udhari School, both as an influencer and a beneficiary, is examined, offering a nuanced perspective on its implications on his oeuvre[4]. The research provides an immersive journey through Bashar's poetic universe, serving as a lens to comprehend the broader aesthetic paradigms of the Abbasid literary epoch.</em></p> Dr.Abdul Saboor Copyright (c) 2023 OEconomia 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 6 2 349 361 Empowering Education: Unraveling the Administrative Role of Head Teachers in Nankana Sahib, Punjab, Pakistan https://oeconomiajournal.com/index.php/Journal/article/view/83 <p><em>School leaders play a critical role in shaping the educational environment by facilitating communication, establishing supportive social connections, engaging in mentoring programs, and promoting progress. The position of school head teacher in educational administration is well-established, yet there remains ambiguity surrounding the proper and functional role of this post. Conflicting perceptions and expectations about the responsibilities of school leaders have been evident in research studies, underscoring the need for a comprehensive conceptualization of their role. In this study, we employed a quantitative research design to investigate the perceptions of teachers regarding the role of school leaders in District Nankana Sahib. The study utilized a random sampling technique, and data were collected through self-made questionnaires. The findings reveal that educational administration is vital for the effective functioning of the institution's system. Notably, the analysis highlights the importance of the notion of responsibility deeply embedded in the organizational mindset of educational institutions. Educational responsibility emerges as a fundamental requirement and should be accorded a central role in organizing analytics within educational institutions. The research sheds light on teachers' attitudes towards the head teacher's role in directing primary education, administration, motivation, and decision-making. The positive perceptions of school leaders' curriculum supervision, provision of instructional materials, motivation efforts, and participatory decision-making highlight the significance of effective leadership in fostering a positive and conducive school environment. The study emphasizes the importance of school leaders in promoting collaborative decision-making, instructional competence, and a supportive learning environment, ultimately contributing to improved teaching practices and student performance. However, it is essential to recognize the limitations of the study, such as the context-specific nature of the findings and the sample size. Further research with larger and more diverse samples is necessary to gain a comprehensive understanding of the complexities of educational leadership and its impact on school outcomes. The study calls for continuous exploration and conceptual refinement of the role of school leaders to ensure effective educational administration and achievement of educational goals.</em></p> Muqaddas Rani Asifa Ishaq Fazal Abbas Dr. Khalid Mahmood Arif Rizwana Bashir Zia Copyright (c) 2023 OEconomia 2022-06-30 2022-06-30 6 2 362 377 Comparing Classical Political Thought and Statecraft in India and China https://oeconomiajournal.com/index.php/Journal/article/view/72 <p>China and India's ascent may be the most significant political development of the twenty-first century. What will China's and India's foreign policies look like in the future? How should they appear? What can one country learn from another? Bridging Two Worlds brings together a panel of specialists to examine important political philosophers from these ancient locations whose conceptions of interstate relations set the foundations for today's disputes. This is the first book of its sort, and it is required reading for anybody interested in China and India's progress and what it means for the rest of the globe. “This fascinating book sheds light on the two great civilizations that will once again drive the world.</p> <p>Keywords- Indian-China&nbsp;</p> Mohan Thite Deepa Kumari Copyright (c) 2023 OEconomia 2023-06-22 2023-06-22 6 2 The Use and Need of Social media in Contemporary Times, an Analytical Study in the light of Islamic Teachings https://oeconomiajournal.com/index.php/Journal/article/view/80 <p>There is no doubt that social networking has brought people living miles away together, but those living in the same house have been cut off from each other. Learning new things with modern technology is a far cry. The young generation has forgotten its purpose in life and is spending its time on the wrong activities. While in this age of science and technology, the need is to know how we should benefit from modern technology. How can we learn new things, how can we develop more, instead of all this, today's young generation is engaged in misuse of these things. Our young generation is spending their precious time on these useless activities. If you think about it, nothing is bad and harmful by itself, but the way it is used makes it good or bad. Facebook is being used by some people for good things and some people are not. Those who teach Quran online on Facebook, WhatsApp, Skype. They also learn different types of courses. There are many websites that have a lot to learn so it is up to us to use anything positive or wrong. Therefore, in this article, we will try our best to talk about the use of social media in the light of Prophetic teachings and its importance and necessity in contemporary times.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Social media, contemporary times, Use and Need, Islamic Teaching.</p> Dr. Syed Waheed Ahmed Dr. Muhammad Rafiq Dr. Sami Ul Haq Muhammad Shah Faisal Mr. Wasil Niaz Copyright (c) 2023 OEconomia 2023-06-30 2023-06-30 6 2 Social Disparities in Sports Participation of the Adolescents: A comparative study of High Schools in Rural and Urban areas of District Abbott Abad https://oeconomiajournal.com/index.php/Journal/article/view/68 <p><strong>Background:</strong> So for as the issue of constraints and hurdles in the way of adolescents towards participation in sports from rural and urban communities are concerned, literature confirms that both communities have their own problems affecting the frequency and level of participation in sports. <strong>Objectives: </strong>For the present study, the main objectives were (i) to determine the level of sports participation in high school students from rural and urban areas (ii) To identify and compare the factors affecting sports part. <strong>Methodology: </strong>In this research study, a comparative research design was employed. Two main categories of factors; administrative and social aspects, were taken into consideration and cross analyses were made with the students’ participation in sports representing twenty rural and urban schools of district Abbott Abad. A 4-point Likert Scale was used for the collection of data. <strong>Results: </strong>Both rural and urban students did not show significant differences in sports participation (p=0.000), despite the influence of many factors that hindered their participation in sports. A comparison was made between administrative factors and sports participation of rural and urban students and no significant differences were found (p=0.000). Other comparisons were made between social factors and sports participation of rural and urban students and there were no significant differences (p=0.000). Based on these findings, it was concluded that administrative factors obstructed the participation of the rural and urban students in sports, whereas social factors motivated them to participate in sports.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Sports, Administrative, Social, constraints Participation, Rural, Urban&nbsp;</p> Dr. Mohibullah Khan Marwat Dr. Hummaira Farah Muhammad Safdar Ali Dr. Alamgir Khan Yasir Ali Samera Saman Copyright (c) 2023 OEconomia 2023-06-15 2023-06-15 6 2 300 312 Indigenous Palestinian Urbanism in Israel: The Presence of the Absence https://oeconomiajournal.com/index.php/Journal/article/view/78 <p>In this essay, a theoretical framework for Palestinian Indigenous urbanism is presented. It argues that the fact that Palestinian cities existed before Zionist settlers colonised Palestine is a contributing factor in the peculiar and distinctive forms of this urbanisation. We emphasise the lengthy history of Palestinian urbanism as a foundational paradigm for understanding Palestinian experiences in modern-day Israel, and we link it to Israel's ongoing, symbolic, and concrete efforts to destroy Palestinian urban landscapes. We examine how, since the Nakba, the de-urbanization of historic Palestinian communities in Israel has profoundly altered the urban and rural landscapes of these towns, ultimately forcing Palestinians to adapt, develop, and create new types of urbanism in and around these towns.</p> <p>Keywords- Palestinian Urbanism and &nbsp;Israel</p> Laura Cervi-D Copyright (c) 2023 OEconomia 2023-07-27 2023-07-27 6 2 A Research Review of the Objections to the Hadiths Related to the Visitation of Allah in Paradise https://oeconomiajournal.com/index.php/Journal/article/view/65 <p>Allah has created another world after this world, which is called the Hereafter, in which heaven and hell have been repeatedly mentioned. Those who obey Allah will go to heaven and those who disobey will go to hell. All kinds of blessings in Paradise have also been mentioned in detail among these blessings, the greatest blessing is the visitation of Allah, which Muslims will be blessed with in Paradise. It is proven to see the Almighty and Muslims to see Allah in Paradise. But some religious scholars deny that how can Allah be seen. That is why they deny all the hadiths that prove the presence of Allah in Paradise. Therefore, in this article, this subject will be commented in the light of the verses and hadiths of the Holy Quran so that the truth of the subject will be revealed.</p> <p><strong>Keywords;</strong> Objection, Visitation of Allah, Paradise, Research review, Hadith</p> Dr. Aftab Ahmad Dr. Muhammad Inamullah Dr. Amin Ullah Fouzia Ayub Muhammad Anisur Rehman Dr. Rasheed Ahmed Copyright (c) 2023 OEconomia 2023-05-31 2023-05-31 6 2 165 174 Copper use in China and India as a Proxy for Economic Development https://oeconomiajournal.com/index.php/Journal/article/view/56 <p>The study uses a copper flow model for the years 2010, 2012, 2010, and 2017 using regression analysis to look at the relationship between copper flows into usage (copper intensity of use) and the larger economic structures of China and India. China's transition away from copper mining and towards manufacturing is portrayed by the copper flow model. The model indicates that copper production in both countries is lowest during the mining and milling stages. Between 2010 and 2018, China's processing of copper ore increased by 138%, while domestic output of completed goods and copper flows into consumption increased by 320% and 131%, respectively. The volume of ore processed in India decreased by 14% between 2010 and 2018. Domestic finished product production in India expanded by 118% while copper flows into usage climbed by 152% during the same time period. Between 2010 and 2018, China's net imports of concentrates increased by 221%, while India's increased by 300%. China, on the other hand, exports completed commodities containing copper, whereas India imports finished goods containing copper. China's net exports soared by 1182% during the same period, while India's net imports increased by 210%.</p> Dr. Lal Sing Dr. Aslam khan Copyright (c) 2023 OEconomia 2023-04-15 2023-04-15 6 2 44 55 The Role of Language and Education of Tamil Separatism During the Sri-Lankan Civil War https://oeconomiajournal.com/index.php/Journal/article/view/54 <p>Due to extreme cases of arbitrary and widespread executions, suicide bombings, and human rights violations, Sri Lanka is currently plagued by memories and experiences from the lengthy ethnic strife that lasted for almost three decades. The Liberation of Tamil Tigers (LTTE) and the state administration, which was dominated by Sinhalese, fought each other most of the time. The conflict between the Tamil minority and the Sinhala majority is mostly seen as the result of long-standing interethnic hostility. Although there are ethnic disparities between the communities, the root causes of this conflict are far more complicated and generally relate to the nation's pre-colonial, colonial, and post-independence histories.After 1972, indiscriminate practises, including standardisation policy and quota system for admittance into universities based on language and pro-Sinhala policies in the government sector, set the stage for Tamil demand for a separate traditional homeland. As a result, this paper will examine language politics and policies such as the Sinhala-only act, as well as policies such as standardisation and quotas, in order to better comprehend Tamil separatism during the Sri Lankan civil war. Since language is a key component in the maintenance and preservation of cultural and ethnic identity, in this case the language became the sole marker of the ethnographic boundary between them, the politicisation of the issue of official language during the various phases of the war proved to be its most potent manifestation. Tamils were discriminated against in school as a result of the linguistic issue.</p> <p><strong>Keywords- </strong>Language, Education, Tamil Separatism</p> DG-Samaratunga Prof, Dr. Samaraweera Copyright (c) 2023 OEconomia 2023-04-15 2023-04-15 6 2 56 71 Strategies and realities of Palestinian national protection https://oeconomiajournal.com/index.php/Journal/article/view/59 <p>The study paper, conducted under the auspices of the Palestinian Authority (PA), Hamas, and a joint Israeli-Palestinian Authority, examines Palestinian national protection ideas, practises, and attitudes, exposing current practises and deficiencies in civilian protection. Palestinian protection practises and tenets vary widely within the West Bank and Gaza. This chapter examines Palestinian security methods and techniques, with an emphasis on the efficacy of individual and collective defence. Based on research, polling, and interviews with regional and global guardians, this chapter presents an overview of PPP for security.</p> Dr. Mohammad Abu Dr. Sarah Abu-Zaid Copyright (c) 2023 OEconomia 2023-04-17 2023-04-17 6 2 101 113 Critical Discourse Analysis of Violence in the Speeches of Pakistani Political Leaders https://oeconomiajournal.com/index.php/Journal/article/view/60 <p><em>This is an analytical study of the discussion of opponents in the speeches of Pakistani politicians, in which it is observed that </em><em>Political discourses are of much significance in the propagation of desired Political Ideologies. Through various phases of history, it is obvious that human beings have been representing self positively and others negatively. So the rhetoric of violence for negative other representation has been a prominent feature of political discourses. Similarly, the present research critically analysis the political speeches of five Pakistani politicians namely Imran Khan, Shahbaz Sharif, Asif Ali Zardari, Shaikh Rasheed Ahmad and Fazulur Rehman. The data for present research was collected from the fifteen speeches of these politicians (three speeches of each). The time span ranges from October 2015 to 11th November 2019 and the data have been collected from Newas Media channel's YouTube pages. The present research employees Van Dijk socio-cognitive modal and Wodak's 2001 modal of historical approach for the data. These models have been used in amended form, the rationale behind using the amended Modal the inclusion and exclusion of analytical categories present in the modal and in the speeches of the mentioned politicians. The level of analysis include word, sentence and discourse. The findings of the research reveal that war of words have been observed among the politicians, each of them has attempted to represent himself positively at the cost of others. The adjectives of derogative connotations have been used to represent the opponents. However, Mr. Khan has represented his opponents through his political discourse as the looters of national wealth likewise he has been represented as agents of Jews by Mr Rehman. Similarly, the war of words has also been observed in the political discourses of Shahbaz Sharif, Asif Ali Zardari, Shaikh Rasheed Ahmad and Fazulur Rehman. The research suggest that rhetoric of violence is a prominent feature of political discourses. This is done deliberately and ideologically for positive self and negative other representation. </em></p> Muhammad Shah Zaib Hayat Mahrukh Ali Rahat Sultan Dr. Nida Fatima Qurat-ul-Ain Ayyaz Dr. Sohail Akhtar Copyright (c) 2023 OEconomia 2023-04-23 2023-04-23 6 2 114 139 Strategies Used by the Teachers to Manage the Antisocial & Challenging Behavior of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Case of South Punjab https://oeconomiajournal.com/index.php/Journal/article/view/62 <p><em>Therefore, we decided to conduct this study to learn about and compile the methods/strategies used by special education teachers and other professionals working with children who have autism spectrum disorder to address problematic and antisocial behavior in the classroom. Researchers developed the questionnaire to inquire about how teachers in special education settings observe students with ASD and how they handle students with the disorder in the classroom. Careful thought went into the design of every detail for strategies like first determine the requirements than addressed, prepare for any situation, give choices, keep calm and cool in worst situation, teachers and other related specialists were use in managing the challenging behavior and for educational betterment teachers were speak word for word, clearly, and know what will happen next, makes directions clear and short and treat individually, and for improve social skill teacher were remove physical and sensory discomforts, motivate for play with others, use visual and social stories and also give space for his favorite toy or activity. Two hundred and eighty-six special education teachers from three different districts in southern Punjab took part in the current investigation. This analysis made use of numbers gathered from scientific research. Experts in the area of special education designed and assessed the surveys. Inferences were made based on the responses of the sample population. The study's findings corroborate our claims that educators use these strategies for managing the challenging behavior of students on the autism spectrum. The research recommends that trainings for teachers should be conducted specially to introduce the newest strategies for behavior management of autistic children so they might have their difficulties and antisocial conduct better managed with these strategies.</em></p> Fariha Iqbal Dr. Muhammad Javed Aftab Dr. Muhammad Nazir Robina Naqvi Mariam Iqbal Dr. Khalid Saleem Copyright (c) 2023 OEconomia 2023-04-15 2023-04-15 6 2 140 157 English Ought to be Discussed and Instructed? Overseas English Instructors' Perspectives on Thai Higher Education https://oeconomiajournal.com/index.php/Journal/article/view/58 <p>This qualitative study set out to find out how 12 foreign English teachers from four Thai universities felt about World Englishes (WE), Thai English (TE), and the viability of integrating WE into ELT classrooms. The teachers came from the UK, US, Australia, Indonesia, and the Philippines. Participants held positive attitudes and did not dispute the existence of WE and TE, despite differences in their rules, vocabularies, pronunciations, and accents from British English (BrE) and American English (AmE), according to the results of semi-structured interviews and qualitative content analysis. Interviewees also saw different English dialects as representations and symbols of their users' national and cultural identities. While the majority opposed, marginalised, unequally valued, and questioned the legitimacy of WE for ELT implementations, others believed that exposing students to English diversity would prepare them for shifts in the English linguistic landscape and the practical application of today's English.</p> <p><strong>Keywords- </strong>Instructed? Overseas English Instructors, Higher Education</p> Dr. Henrich, Mark Dr. Wilson Aarts Tolibovna-silva Copyright (c) 2023 OEconomia 2023-04-16 2023-04-16 6 2 89 100 Effect of Circuit Training Upon Body Composition of College Students https://oeconomiajournal.com/index.php/Journal/article/view/57 <p>Health-related physical fitness is indispensable for every person irrespective of age, profession and gender to lead a healthy life. One of the key components of health-related physical fitness is body composition. The current study was carried out to determine the “effect of Circuit Training upon body composition among college students”. Hostel students of Government Post Graduate College (GPGC) Karak Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (Kp), Pakistan were the participants of the study in which a sample of thirty students (n=30) was selected as subjects through Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire (PAR-Q). The pre-test data on body composition of all the selected subjects was obtained through body mass index (BMI). Experimental group (circuit training) and Control group (no treatment) were formed of the selected subjects dividing them equally and randomly. The treatment of Circuit Training was given to experimental group on alternate days (Monday, Wednesday and Friday) for twelve weeks while at the same duration, no treatment was given to the control group except the subjects continued their routine life engagements. After the treatment, the post-test data on body composition was obtained through the test adopted for the pre-test. The pre-test data and post-test date was analyzed by applying the descriptive statistical sources (mean, standard deviation, minimum and maximum) and inferential statistical tools (independent sample t test and paired t test). The significance level was fixed at 0.05. The results of the study showed that Circuit Training has significant effects on body composition among the college students. The control group did not show significant improvement in body composition. It was concluded that in order for people to ameliorate the body composition, they should partake regularly in Circuit Training.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </strong>Circuit Training, body composition, college students</p> Irfan Ullah Dr. Ashiq Muhammad Fehmina Bibi Mehboob Ullah Khan Mir Askar Khan Copyright (c) 2023 OEconomia 2023-04-15 2023-04-15 6 2 17 43 Evidence from the Russia-Ukraine Conflict on Management Decisions https://oeconomiajournal.com/index.php/Journal/article/view/55 <p>The Purpose of this research work is to examine the impact of Russia-Ukraine conflict on management decisions. Numerous businesses choose to stay in Russia despite pressure from the public and penalties to leave before Russia invades Ukraine in 2022. We examine how the financial market responded to remarks made by businesses that remained in Russia during the dramatic two weeks that followed the invasion. According to our research, a portfolio of keepers outperforms both the market benchmark and a portfolio of leavers. Remainers will suffer a severe market penalty from investors. Indicating that equities markets are very sensitive to corporate conduct during times of political unrest, there is evidence of higher trade volume and selling pressure on remainers.</p> <p>Keyword- Russia-Ukraine conflict</p> Dr. Tamara- Garciac Prof, Dr. Macchiarellia Polat Copyright (c) 2023 OEconomia 2023-04-15 2023-04-15 6 2 72 88 Mental Health, Stress Reaction and Suicidal Ideation Among Adolescent Off-Spring of Alcoholic Fathers https://oeconomiajournal.com/index.php/Journal/article/view/52 <p>This study attempted to study the mental health, stress reaction, and suicidal ideation among adolescent offspring of alcoholic fathers and a sample of 200 adolescents participated in this study (100 males and 100 female). Data collection was carried out by using the Urdu version of the Mental Health Inventory (MHI), Stanford Acute Stress Reaction Questionnaire (SASRQ), and Beck suicide ideation scale (BSI). SPSS was used to analyze data statistically by computing reliability coefficients, correlation coefficients regression analysis, Moderation analysis, ANOVA, and t-tests The study results identified that offspring of alcoholic fathers face certain mental health conditions which result in poor stress coping and the development of suicidal tendencies. Mental health act as a moderator between stress reactions and suicidal ideation. There is a positive relationship between a stress reaction and suicidal ideation among adolescent offspring of alcoholics. Results also indicate that mental health is negatively correlated with stress reactions and suicidal ideation. Furthermore, female adolescents have more suicidal tendencies and stress reactions than male adolescent offspring of alcoholics. The results of the current research can be useful to develop more understanding of the mental health conditions, suicidal ideation, and stress reactions among offspring of alcoholic fathers and to regulate intervention and rehabilitation programs in educational and community settings.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong>&nbsp; Mental health, Suicidal ideation, Stress reaction, Offspring of alcoholic fathers.</p> Atiqa Bano Reshma Shahdi Rida Riaz Sharafat Ali* Dr. Sadiq Husain Copyright (c) 2023 OEconomia 2023-04-13 2023-04-13 6 2 1 16