Critical Discourse Analysis of Violence in the Speeches of Pakistani Political Leaders
Keywords:Pakistan, Leaders, Speeches, violence, Discourse, etc.
This is an analytical study of the discussion of opponents in the speeches of Pakistani politicians, in which it is observed that Political discourses are of much significance in the propagation of desired Political Ideologies. Through various phases of history, it is obvious that human beings have been representing self positively and others negatively. So the rhetoric of violence for negative other representation has been a prominent feature of political discourses. Similarly, the present research critically analysis the political speeches of five Pakistani politicians namely Imran Khan, Shahbaz Sharif, Asif Ali Zardari, Shaikh Rasheed Ahmad and Fazulur Rehman. The data for present research was collected from the fifteen speeches of these politicians (three speeches of each). The time span ranges from October 2015 to 11th November 2019 and the data have been collected from Newas Media channel's YouTube pages. The present research employees Van Dijk socio-cognitive modal and Wodak's 2001 modal of historical approach for the data. These models have been used in amended form, the rationale behind using the amended Modal the inclusion and exclusion of analytical categories present in the modal and in the speeches of the mentioned politicians. The level of analysis include word, sentence and discourse. The findings of the research reveal that war of words have been observed among the politicians, each of them has attempted to represent himself positively at the cost of others. The adjectives of derogative connotations have been used to represent the opponents. However, Mr. Khan has represented his opponents through his political discourse as the looters of national wealth likewise he has been represented as agents of Jews by Mr Rehman. Similarly, the war of words has also been observed in the political discourses of Shahbaz Sharif, Asif Ali Zardari, Shaikh Rasheed Ahmad and Fazulur Rehman. The research suggest that rhetoric of violence is a prominent feature of political discourses. This is done deliberately and ideologically for positive self and negative other representation.